Currently                             Professor, Department of Political Science,

                                                University of Houston, Houston, Texas   77204-3474

                                                Phone (713) 962-9823; FAX (713) 743-3927;


Education                             Georgetown University, B.A.; Indiana University, Ph.D.           


Books and Monographs


11) Principles of Constitutional Design (New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2006).


10) Colonial Origins of the American Constitution: A Documentary History (Indianapolis: Liberty

                 Press, 1998).  [Second printing, January 2000; in print as of 9/1/2007]


 9) A Preface to American Political Theory (Lawrence, Kansas: The University Press of Kansas, 1992).         

                 [in print as of 9/1/2007]


 8) Roots of the Republic: American Founding Documents Interpreted, ed. Stephen L. Schechter and

                Richard B. Bernstein (Madison, Wisconsin: Madison House, 1990). [in print as of 9/1/2007]


 7) The Origins of American Constitutionalism (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988).

[in print as of 9/1/2007]


 6) Perspectives on American and State Politics, Kent Tedin, co-editor (Dubuque, Iowa:                                      

                Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1987); 2nd. ed 1989; 3rd. ed. 1992; 4th ed., 1997. 

                [in print until 2002]


 5) A Covenanted People: The Religious Tradition and the Origins of American Constitutionalism                            

                (Providence, Rhode Island: the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University, 1987).

                [in print from 1987 until 2000]


 4) Documents of Political Foundation by Colonial Americans (with an interpretive essay) (Philadelphia:

                I.S.H.I. Press, 1986).


 3) American Political Writing During the Founding Era, 1760-1805, 2 vols., Charles S. Hyneman, co-editor

                (Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1983). [in print as of 9/1/2007]


 2) Popular Consent and Popular Control: Whig Political Theory in the Early State Constitutions                             

                (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980).  [in print until May 1990.]


 1)Minimum Winning Coalitions in Legislatures: A Review of the Evidence (Sage Monographs in American

                Politics, 1976). [in print from 1976 until 1984; reissued by TLG Media in Fall 2006]


Refereed Articles

25) “Constitutional Bricolage?” Syracuse Law Review, Vol. 57, No 2 ( Fall 2007): 311-326. [invited

                commentary on Akil Amar, America’s Constitution: A Biography]


24)Why Federalism?” William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 61, 3rd series (2005): 582-88. [invited essay]


23) "Thinking About Constitutionalism at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century," Publius:

The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Spring 2001): 115-35.


22) "Constitutionalism since 1945: An Empirical and Theoretical Overview," AETAS, No. 4 (1998): 126-40.  

                [AETAS is a highly regarded American Studies journal in Hungary.  The article was published in both

                English and Hungarian.]                   


21) "The Iroquois Confederation Constitution: An Analysis," Publius: The Journal of  Federalism,

Vol. 28, No. 2 (1998): 99-127.


20) "Toward a Theory of Constitutional Amendment," American Political Science Review, 88 (1994): 355-70.


19) "The State Constitutional Pedigree of the U.S. Bill of Rights," Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 22,

                No. 2 (1992): 19-45.


18) "The States and the U.S. Bill of Rights," Southern Illinois University Law Journal, Vol. 16 (1992): 251-62.


17) "The Intellectual Background to the American Founding," Texas Tech Law Review, Vol. 21, No. 4 (1990):



16) "Protection of Political Participation in Eighteenth Century America," Albany Law Review, (Spring 1990):



15) "Religious Dimensions in the Development of American Constitutionalism," Emory Law Journal, Vol. 39,

                No. 1 (1990): 21-40.


14) "The Articles of Confederation as the Background to the Federal Republic," Publius: The Journal of

                Federalism, Vol. 20, No. 1 (1990): 55-70.


13) "The Declaration of Independence as Part of a National Compact," Publius: The Journal of Federalism,

                Vol. 19, No. 1 (1989): 41-58.


12) "The United States Constitution as an Incomplete Text," Annals of the American Academy of Political and

                Social Science, Vol. 496 (1988): 23-32.


11) "The Changing View of the Founding and a New Perspective on American Political Theory," Social

                Science Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 4 (1987): 669-86.


10) "The Origins of American Constitutionalism: The Colonial Heritage," Juris, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1987), 56 pp.


 9) "The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eighteenth Century American Political Thought,"

American Political Science Review, Vol. 78 (1984): 189-97.


 8) "The Purposes of American State Constitutions," Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 12, No. 1

                (1982): 27-44.


 7) "From Covenant to Constitution in the Early State Constitutions," Publius: The Journal of Federalism,

                Vol. 10, No. 4 (1980): 101-133.


 6) "The Theory of Consent in the Early State Constitutions," Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 9,

                No. 2 (1979).


 5) "Bernard Bailyn, Gordon S. Wood, and Whig Political Theory," The Political Science Reviewer (Fall,

                1977): 111-144.


 4) "Issues and Coalition Size in the Texas Legislature: A Further Test of Riker's Theory," Western

                Political Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 2 (1975): 269-315; Richard Murray, co-author.


 3) "Redistricting in American Sates: A Test of the Minimal Winning Coalition Hypothesis," American

                Journal of Political Science (May 1974): 233-55; Richard Murray, co-author.


 2) "Recruitment Patterns and Role Orientation of Candidates to the Houston City Council: A Look at the

                Political Activist" The Municipal Matrix, Vol. IV, No. 3 (1973); Richard Feld, co-author.


  1. "Recruitment of City Council Members in Houston," The Journal of Politics, Vol. 34 (1972): 924-33;

Richard Feld, co-author.


Book Chapters and Encyclopedia Articles

34) “Who Were the Antifederalists, What Did They Want, And Why Does It Matter?” in departmental reader in

                American politics, Kent Tedin, ed., forthcoming 2007.


33) “The Alaska Constitution: Realizing the Theory of Constitutional Choice,” Barbara Allen, co-author, in

                The Practice of Constitutional Development, Barbara Allen, Filippo Sabetti, Mark Sproule-Jones, eds.

                (Lanham, MD:  Lexington Books, forthcoming 2007).


32) “Four Unbidden Muses: The Genesis of a Research Agenda,” chapter 1 in A Festschrift in Honor of

                Donald S. Lutz’s Contributions to the Study of State Constitutions, ed. Christopher Hammons  

                and George Connor(Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, forthcoming 2007). 


31) “George Carey and the Roots of America’s Basic Liberties” in Defending the Republic: Essays in

                Honor of George Wescott Carey, ed. Bruce Frohnen and Kenneth Grasso(Ann Arbor, Michigan:

                ISI Press, forthcoming 2007)


30) "The Electoral College in Historical and Philosophical Perspective," Ch. 2 in Choosing a President: The

                Electoral College and Beyond, ed. Paul Schumaker and Burdett Loomis (New York: Chatham House,

                2002); Philip Abbott, Barbara Allen, and Russell Hanson, co-authors.


29) "Sovereignty," in The Oxford Companion to American Law, Kermit Hall, ed. (New York: Oxford

                University Press, 2001).


28) "Liberty," in The Oxford Companion to American Law, Kermit Hall, ed.(New York: Oxford

                University Press, 2001).


27) "American Constitutions," in The Oxford Companion to American Law, Kermit Hall, ed. (New York:

                Oxford University Press, 2001).


26) "Political Theory and Constitutional Construction," chapter 2 in Political Theory and Partisan Politics,

                Edward Portis, ed. (SUNY Press, 2001).         


25) “Liberty and Equality from a Communitarian Perspective," in Covenant Connection, Daniel J. Elazar, ed.

                (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2000).


24) "State Constitution Making, 1776-1781," in The Blackwell Companion to the American Revolution

                J. P. Greene and J. R. Pole, eds. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2000).


23) “Consent," in The Blackwell Companion to the American Revolution, J. P. Greene and J. R. Pole, eds.

                (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2000).


22) "The Articles of Confederation," Ch. 2 in American and European Constitutions, 1776-1813,

                Horst Dippel, ed. (University of Kassel, 2000).


21) "The Legislative Process in Colonial America and in the States Before 1789," Ch. 2 in The Invention

                and History of Legislative Procedures in the American Congress, Kenneth R. Bowling, ed.

                (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999).


20) "The Pedigree of the U.S. Bill of Rights," in The Bill of Rights: Government Proscribed, Ronald Hoffman

                and Peter Albert, eds. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997).


19) "The Articles of Confederation," in American Confederal Experiences, Past and Present,

                Daniel J. Elazar, ed. (New York: University Press of America, 1997).


18) "Constitutional Amendment in American State Constitutions," in Constitutional Politics in the States:

                Contemporary Controversies and Historical Patterns, G. Alan Tarr, ed. (Westport: Greenwood

                Press, 1996).


17) "Toward A Theory of Constitutional Amendment," Ch. 11 in Responding to Imperfection: The Theory

                and Practice of Constitutional Amendment, Sanford Levinson, ed. (Princeton: Princeton University

                Press, 1995): 237-74. 


16) "Federalism as the Basis for American Interjurisdictional Relations," Ch. 10 in Constitutionalism:

                The Israeli and American Experiences, Daniel J. Elazar, ed. (New York: University Press

of America, 1992): 145-62.


15) "The Relative Influence of European Thinkers on Late Eighteenth Century American Thought,"

                in The New American Nation, 1776-1815, Peter S. Onuf, ed. (Garland Publishing, 1992). 

[A volume reprinting the best scholarly articles by historians and political theorists covering

this period.  Political science is represented by five articles from the American Political Science

Review--this one from 1984, and those by John Hoadley (1980), Martin Diamond (1959), Gerald

Stourzh (1953), and Louis Hartz (1952).]


14) "Consent," in Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, J. P. Greene and J. R. Pole, eds. (Oxford:

                Basil Blackwell, 1991).


13) "State Constitution-Making Through 1781," in Encyclopedia of the American Revolution,

                J. P. Greene and J. R. Pole, eds. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991).


12) "Federalism as a Principle of Constitutional Design," in Studies in Public Law and Comparative

                Political Science, Manuel J. Pelaez, ed. (Malaga, Spain: University of Malaga, 1991).


11) "Political Participation in Eighteenth-Century America, in Toward a Usable Past: Liberty Under

                State Constitutions, Paul Finkelman and Stephen E. Gottlieb, eds. (Athens: University of Georgia

                Press, 1991): 19-49.


10) "The Mayflower Compact," Ch 1; "The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut," Ch. 2; "The Declaration of

                Independence," Ch. 8;  "The Virginia Declaration of Rights and Constitution of 1776," Ch. 9;  "The

                Articles of Confederation," Ch 12; and "The U. S. Constitution," Ch. 14 in Roots of the Republic:

                American Founding Documents Interpreted, Stephen L. Schechter, ed. (Madison: Madison House,



 9) "The U.S. Bill of Rights in Historical Perspective," Ch. 1 in Contexts of the Bill of Rights, Stephen L.

                Schechter and Richard B. Bernstein, eds.  (Albany: The N. Y. State Commission on the Bicentennial

                of the U.S. Constitution, 1990).


 8) "Connecticut: Achieving Consent and Assuring Control," Ch. 5 in Ratifying the Constitution,

                Michael Gillespie and Michael Lienesch, eds. (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1989).


 7) "The Colonial Background to New York State Constitutionalism," Ch. 1 in A Documentary History

                of New York State Constitutions, Stephen L. Schechter, ed. (Albany: The N. Y. State Commission

                on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution, 1988).


 6) "The Texas Constitution," Ch. 13 in Perspectives on American and Texas Politics, Donald S. Lutz

                and Kent Tedin, eds. (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1987).


 5) "The First American Constitutions," Ch. 4 in The Constitution: A History of its Framing and

                Ratification, Leonard Levy and Dennis J. Mahoney, eds. (New York: Macmillan, 1987).


 4) "The Origins of American Constitutionalism," in Teaching about the Constitution (Washington, D.C.:

                National Council for the Social Studies, 1987), 26 pp.


 3) "The Preamble to the United States Constitution," in This Constitution (a journal published jointly by

                the American Historical Association and the American Political Science Association), Vol. 1, No.

                1 (1983): 23-30.


 2) "The Theory of Consent in the Early State Constitutions," Ch. 2 in Republicanism, Representation, and

Consent: Views of the Founding Era, Daniel Elazar, ed. (Philadelphia: Transaction Press, 1980).


 1) "American Contributions to Consent Theory: 1776-1800," Ch. 3 in Founding Principles of American

                Government: Two Hundred Years of Democracy on Trial, George Graham, Jr., and Scarlett Graham,

                eds. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976).


Book Reviews


The American Political Science Review, The Journal of Politics, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Technometrics, The Annals of Political Science and History, William and Mary Quarterly, Journal of Southern History, Journal of American History, and History of European Ideas.


Professional Activities     


Manuscript reviewer, on a regular basis, for the American Political Science Review, The American Journal of Political Science, The  Journal of Politics, Polity, Political Research Quarterly, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Social Science Quarterly, Canadian Journal of Political Science, The Review of Politics, William and Mary Quarterly, The American Journal of Legal History, and History of Political Thought.


Travel on lecture tours sponsored by the U.S. State Department--most recently to Portugal and Mexico. Regular trips to foreign nations to take part in multi-disciplinary, multi-national, invitation-only conferences, institutes, and other programs dealing with constitutional design and change.  Typically I chair the meetings as discussion leader.   In recent years I have made separate, multiple trips to conferences in Belgium, Brazil, Britain, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Switzerland, and Venezuela.  The trips to Europe usually deal with the emerging European Union constitution, and adjustments required in existing national constitutions.  The activities in the Czech Republic resulted in the awarding of a Medal of Honor by Palacky University in 1994 and an honorary membership on the law faculty. 


From 1992 until 2005, I served as lead faculty at U.S.I.A. or Fulbright-sponsored six-week summer institutes for foreign academics.  Each institute had professors from eighteen different nations, with a total of seventy-nine different nations represented over the eight years.


Organized and directed regular conferences in the U.S. that invited foreign and American scholars to discuss comparative American constitutional traditions.  Several conferences have dealt comparatively with the constitutional traditions of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Venezuela.  Most have dealt with American national and state constitutions, and others have dealt with concepts and theorists important to constitutionalism such as sovereignty, bills of rights, federalism, separation of powers, Aristotle, Cicero, Locke, Algernon Sidney, James Madison, Montesquieu, Tocqueville, and Burke.  The number of conferences and programs directed in the U.S. and overseas totals thirty-six, and the grants received to conduct them total over $1,300,000.  The number of additional conferences participated in exceeds one hundred.


Continue to serve (since 1984) as a Fellow of the Center for the Study of Federalism.  The Fellows constitute the Board of Directors for the Center.  As a Fellow, I have been involved in applying for and helping to administer a number of large grants, including six from NEH that together total over $750,000, and three from the USIA and Fulbright Program totaling over $1,400,000.


Served as President of the University of Houston Faculty Senate in 1978-79.  While serving in this elective office, and in subsequent posts on special committees appointed by the chief academic officer, I was involved with six others in drafting what is still the basis for the current faculty handbook; helped restructure the University committee and governance structure--including the creation of the Undergraduate Council and Graduate and Professional Studies Council; was involved in the oversight of University finances and the creation of the current system; assisted in selecting two presidents for the University; and served on the steering committee for two University self-studies as part of the periodic accreditation process.


Served as the Director of the University Honors Program--now the Honors College--1976-77.  During my year in this post I initiated and oversaw an outside evaluation of the program, helped design its new curriculum, and obtained the funding to implement the new program.  With the funding I secured, the budget increased by ten-fold; the program moved to renovated quarters in the basement in the Library more than ten times the size of its old location; the curriculum was completely revamped; the Honors Program was given its own permanent faculty for the first time; and I found the new Director, who is currently the Dean of the Honors College. 


Director of Graduate Studies for the Department of Political Science, Fall 1988-Fall 1991, and Fall 1993-Fall 1996.  In this post, I conducted a revamping of the doctoral program, directed studies required by two outside evaluations of the graduate program, oversaw admissions, and counseled the approximately 100 students already in the program.  The Ph.D. program has grown from an average of two Ph.D.s per year between 1972 and 1988 to five times that average since 1990. 


Served as elected president of the Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations Section of the American Political Science Association, 1990-1992, and as section head for the panels on Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations at the APSA Convention the year before.


Organizer/director of numerous programs for high school government and history teachers, including four one-month summer institutes funded by N.E.H.  Materials developed for these teachers are currently in use in about a dozen states.


Work in Progress


Political Patterns in Small Democracies: a sequel to my latest book, Principles of Constitutional Design.  This time, I focus on the countries that scholars have continuously ignored, the small democracies with a population under ten million, and often with fewer than one hundred thousand people, squeezed onto a number of small islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, in the Caribbean, or in a series of mountain valleys in Europe, Asia, or Africa, with names like Palau, Kiribati, Vanuatu, and Nauru. (book manuscript).


Political Theory of Confederations: An Empirical Approach, book manuscript that proposes to do a comparative, empirical analysis of thirty-six confederations from the ancient, modern and medieval eras working heavily from a public choice perspective.   


A Rational Actor Theory of Legislative Design in Constitutional Democracies (article).


An Empirical Test of James Madison’s Theory of the Extended Republic Using Cross-National Data (article, under review).


A Theoretical Tale of Three Confederations, or why one of them (the Iroquois Confederation) was wildly successful, and another (the Holy Roman Empire), despite being in existence for a thousand years, was  a failure, and why the third (the English Heptarchy), despite five hundred years of trying, failed to come into existence—Toward An Anthropological  Theory of Political Confederations (article).




                Martha Derthick Award, presented by the APSA Section on Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations

                for the book on federalism that has made a significant contribution to the discipline and has been in print

                for at least ten years, 2007.


Teaching Honors


University Teaching Excellence Award, 1978

College of Social Sciences Teaching Excellence Award, 1985

                Mortarboard "Top Prof" eleven times


Courses Taught on a Recurring Basis


American Political Theory (graduate and undergraduate)

Introduction to Political Theory (undergraduate)

Principles of Constitutional Design (graduate and undergraduate)

Introduction to Political Theory (undergraduate)

Ancient and Medieval Political Theory (graduate and undergraduate)

European Political Theory Since 1500 (graduate and undergraduate)

Democratic Theory (graduate and undergraduate)

Political Inquiry and the Philosophy of Social Science (graduate)

Contemporary Political Theory (graduate)

French Political Philosophy (graduate)

Theories of Textual Analysis and Political Texts (graduate)

Introduction to American Government (undergraduate honors course)